Water-only Fasting Literature
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In vivo magnetic resonance spectrometry imaging demonstrates comparable adaptation of brain energy metabolism to metabolic stress induced by 72 h of fasting in depressed patients and healthy volunteers
Publication:
J Psychiatr Res
Publication Year:
2021
ISSN:
1879-1379 (Electronic) 0022-3956 (Linking)
DOI:
10.1016/j.jpsychires.2021.10.003
Abstract

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by dysregulation of stress systems and by abnormalities in cerebral energy metabolism. Stress induction has been shown to impact neurometabolism in healthy individuals. Contrarily, neurometabolic changes in response to stress are insufficiently investigated in MDD patients. Metabolic stress was induced in MDD patients (MDD, N = 24) and in healthy individuals (CTRL, N = 22) by application of an established fasting protocol in which calorie intake was omitted for 72 h. Both study groups were comparable regarding age, gender distribution, and body mass index (BMI). Fasting-induced effects on brain high-energy phosphate levels and membrane phospholipid metabolism were assessed using phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS). Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs did not reveal significant interaction effects (group x fasting) or group differences in adenosine triphosphate (ATP), phosphocreatine (PCr), inorganic phosphate (Pi), phosphomonoesters (PME), phosphodiesters (PDE), or pH levels between MDD and CTRL. Fasting, independent of group, significantly increased ATP and decreased Pi levels and an overall increase in PME/PDE ratio as marker for membrane turnover was observed. Overall these results indicate reactive changes in cerebral energetics and in membrane phospholipid metabolism in response to fasting. The observed effects did not significantly differ between CTRL and MDD, indicating that neurometabolic adaptation to metabolic stress is preserved in MDD patients.

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