PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death globally. Nutrition plays a central role in CVD risk by affecting aging, adiposity, glycemia, blood pressure, cholesterol, inflammation, and other risk factors and can affect CVD risk not only based on calorie intake and dietary composition but also the timing and range of meals. This review evaluates the effects of fasting, fasting-mimicking diets, and time-restricted eating on the reduction of CVD risk factors and provides initial data on their potential to serve as CVD prevention and treatment therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: Intermittent fasting (IF), time-restricted eating (TRE), prolonged fasting (PF), and fasting-mimicking diets (FMD) show promise in the reduction of CVD risk factors. Results on IF, TRE, PF, and FMD on CVD risk factors are significant and often independent of weight loss, yet long-term studies on their effect on CVD are still lacking. Coupling periodic and prolonged, or intermittent and more frequent cycles of fasting or fasting-mimicking diets, designed to maximize compliance and minimize side effects, has the potential to play a central role in the prevention and treatment of CVD and metabolic syndrome.
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